the Impaler of Wallachia. Malcor Garland Publshing, Inc, New York, 1994, 2000. The old Legions actually still exist, but they largely have been settled on the land as fixed frontier forces, the Limitanei, and the old legionary establishment has been reduced to 1000 men, with the number of legions accordingly multiplied - for instance, only one legion. In the course of all that history, the apparent power of the Italian cities was punctured like a balloon in 1494, when King Charles viii of France invaded Italy. Since no crimes or misconduct could be attributed to her, a couple were invented. As it happened, the Norsemen were rather less successful against the Romans than they were against the Franks, and bouts of attacks were usually followed by treaties - where such reconciliation was rarely necessary in the West. Another possibility is that they are stylized forms of Crescent Moons, originally symbolic of the divine patroness of Byzantium, the goddess Artemis. Singleton, Princeton, Bollingen, 1975,.224-225, translation modified, speaking of Constantine in the Heaven of Jupiter and of the "Donation of Constantine" ( Constitutum Donatio Constantini ) to the Pope - a document later exposed (1440) by Lorenzo Valla (c.1407-1457) as a forgery.